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Sunday, February 8, 2015

What do you mean by CryoVolcano?

A cryovolcano (colloquially known as an ice volcano) erupts slurries of volatile compounds such as water or methane instead of lava. These substances are usually liquids and form plumes, but can also be in vapour form. After eruption, cryomagma condenses to a solid form when exposed to the very low surrounding temperature. Cryovolcanoes form on icy moons, and possibly on other low-temperature astronomical objects (e.g., Kuiper belt objects).
The energy required to melt ices and produce cryovolcanoes usually comes from tidal friction. It has also been suggested that translucent deposits of frozen materials could create a sub-surface greenhouse effect that would accumulate the required heat.
Ice volcanoes were first observed on Neptune's moon Triton during the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989.
On November 27, 2005 Cassini photographed geysers on the south pole of Enceladus.

Indirect evidence of cryovolcanic activity was later observed on several other icy moons of our Solar System, including Europa, Titan, Ganymede, and Miranda. Cassini has observed several features thought to be cryovolcanoes on Titan. Such volcanism is now believed to be a significant source of the methane found in Titan's atmosphere.
In 2007, observations by the Gemini Observatory showing patches of ammonia hydrates and water crystals on the surface of Pluto's moon Charon suggested the presence of active cryovolcanoes/cryo-geysers


 -Content taken from wikipedia

Sunday, December 21, 2014

How to Backup up hardware key

If you have a industrial software which uses hardware key to authenticate the license, then it is very difficult to run the software without the key dongle plugged in. Their is a chance that the key might be stolen as it looks just like pen drive. If the key dongle is stolen, then the software will not run and you have to buy another license key dongle if  you are not under service contract.

In this article I'll describe you with the method by which you can backup your hardware dongle to enable you to run the software without the key dongle plugged in.

Note: All the steps has to be done while the dongle is plugged in and the application is running.

Step 1. Download Sentinel key reader Dumper.exe. This is used to dump the key file in the dongle which is otherwise impossible to read.

Note: This can only be used with Sentinel SuperPro/UltraPro keys. The best way to find whether your key is Sentinel is that when you run the application dumper.exe, it will not show the message as "Safenet dongle drivers are not installed".

Step 2. Open dumper.exe. Click on Dump as shown in figure. It will save a dump file in .bin format.




Step 3. Now Download Bin2Dng. It will converts .bin file generated in previous step to .dng format.



Step 4.  Open Bin2Dng.exe. Goto Sentinel tab and do as instructed in the figure.






Step 5. After properly doing all above steps .dng file is generated. Now download SentinelEmulator. This will emulate the .dng file as if the dongle is Plugged in the USB drive.

Step 6.  Do as instructed in the figures.





Step 7. After all the steps has been done, remove the dongle and restart the application that uses the dongle to verify itself. You will see, it did not required the dongle and still running.

 You can keep the dongle safe somewhere or use it to run the application in another PC.



Sunday, December 14, 2014

What is atomic clock?

 Have you wondered how time works?  What do you mean by 1 sec?  How the duration of 1 sec is decided?
All these questions will be answered when you understand the atomic clock. World time is based upon a reference and that reference is the atomic clock. 

What is atomic clock

An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. i.e. locking an electronic oscillator to the frequency of an atomic transition. The transition is generally between hyperfine level which is a small shifts and splittings in the energy levels of atoms resulted from interaction between the magnetic moments associated with electron spin and the electrons' orbital angular momentum.

Elements used for atomic clock

1. Cesium-133
2. Rubidium-87

Cesium atomic clock

It employ a beam of cesium atoms. The clock separates cesium atoms of different energy levels by magnetic field.

Rubidium Atomic clock

It is the simplest and most compact of all, use a glass cell of rubidium gas that changes its absorption of light at the optical rubidium frequency when the surrounding microwave frequency is just right.

The most accurate atomic clocks available today use the cesium atom and the normal magnetic fields and detectors. In addition, the cesium atoms are stopped from zipping back and forth by laser beams, reducing small changes in frequency due to the Doppler effect.
Cesium is chosen for atomic clock because of the advantage of its atomic structure. It has lone electron in its outermost shell which has hyperfine structure because of nuclear spin. It needs microwave frequency(very small energy) to have a hyperfine level transition. The frequency needed for he transition is accurately determined in case of cesium and it is easily reproducible using frequency oscillator.

Because of high accuracy of atomic clock, the astronomical time base has been scraped and a new standard has been evolved. We define 1 second as

The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
 i.e.  1 second = 9,192,631,779 cycles of standard Cs-133 transition

We can say that 9,192,631,779 Hz frequency is needed for Hyperfine level transition in standard Cs-133 atom. This frequency has been accurately determined and precisely reproduced.  

It has been claimed that the best atomic clock gives an uncertainty of 1 second in 30 million years.

New researches are being carried out which is claiming to be 100 times more accurate then the best atomic clock. A newly proposed clock that uses the orbit of a neutron around an atomic nucleus to keep time would be so accurate that it would only gain or lose 1/20th of a second every 14 billion years – or about the lifetime of the universe.

 

Monday, December 8, 2014

Changes in Minimum wages rates w.e.f. Jan'2013 to present

Construction Labour
Sometimes states minimum wage rate is higher then that of center

If you are currently employed in Manufacturing industries/Construction companies who need general maintenance contracts for their jobs to be done, then its very important for them to have a knowledge of minimum wages to be paid to their labours and keep them self updated of the changes which happen periodically.
As of Central wage rate is concerned, it changes on April and October every year. with a gap of Six Months.

As of States are concerned, they have their own timing for the change but they also follow the same rule of center.
Right Now, as of center directives, every contract should have the price variation clause to enable the contractor to pay their labours as per minimum wage decided by government.This is called PVC clause.
Here I am giving you the links of Center and West Bengal Government circulars of minimum wage for a reference.

Center revision of Minimum Wage rate from April 2013 to March 2015

  1.  w.e.f  April'2013 to Sept'2013
  2.  w.e.f  Oct'2013 to March'2014
  3.  w.e.f  April'2014 to Sept'2014
  4.  w.e.f  Oct'2014 to March'2015

West Bengal revision of  Minimum Wage rate from January 2013 to December 2014